Manually navigate through your site and click every link you find both in the menus and in the content.
This manual 'hands-on' approach has the added advantage that you are forced to view every page on your site and that might reveal some other
issue or bug (e.g. a broken image in some page content).
However, websites with hundreds or thousands of pages can be impractical to scan manually, so the other approach
There are some great link-checker add-ons for web browsers that quickly highlight broken links on the page you are viewing.
Or, broader solutions like Google's Webmaster Tools provide error reporting on broken links/pages across your entire website.
Review organic search listings
Your listings in a search engine like Google are often the first engagement your visitor will have with your website and brand.
Check the title and description of your page listing in the search results. Are there spelling mistakes or grammatical errors? Does the description/title of the search result match the page content behind it? A cool feature in Google is to use the "site:" string in your search to show only results for a specific domain (so for example searching Google for "site:webbuildersgroup.com" will only show pages indexed on webbuildersgroup.com).
This makes it easy to see all indexed pages for your site. Inversely, sometimes certain confidential information is intended to be private (i.e. for administrators only) and should not be found in Google. Use the “site:” test to confirm those pages or files are not available to the public.
Review error logs
Most web servers include a log file that stores error messages over time. Reviewing these log files can provide important insight into issues with your site. If you're not a techy person, it can be tricky to understand some of the messages in the log file (or even find out where the log file is). If you are not familiar where the logs are stored, ask your hosting provider. Or, you can invest in some user-friendly error reporting.
Most modern Content Management Systems can be configured to send an email with a detailed report when an error happens. You don't necessarily need to understand the error message, just that an error happened and it may warrant some follow-up.
Review crawl errors
If you need your website to be found in search results, understanding potential barriers to being listed is critical. Google Webmaster Tools is a great tool that will provide insight into issues preventing you from being found. Search engine ranking and indexing metrics constantly change. Reviewing crawl errors on a regular basis is a healthy exercise to help keep your site listed in search results.
Test contact information
If you're sharing ways to be contacted (email, phone, mailing address, etc) then make sure they work! Not everyone has a contact form (if you do, it should be on your list of things to test) but at the very least, most people share an email or phone number on their site. Make sure this information is current and that it works.
Test in various web browsers and devices
Your visitors do not all use the same program to browse the web. For example, some use Internet Explorer or Firefox on a desktop computer, others use Safari or Chrome on a mobile device or tablet. You want to make sure your website appears correctly, or at the very least is visible and functional on all browsers. You can download a collection of popular browsers on your computer for free and test with these. Or look to colleagues, friends, and family to load your website on their mobile phone or tablet.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) offers a free validation tool that checks for errors in your web code. This is another test that can be tricky for non-techy persons to understand (what the errors mean), but at the very least you can get some insight into whether your validation errors are increasing or decreasing, which may indicate the need to look further.
This is something that can be done manually, or with the help of a tool (such as a browser add-on).
Accessibility is an extremely broad topic in that it includes people with and without disabilities. The goal is to provide all visitors with equal access to information and functionality. Step one in testing for accessibility is understanding the types of visitors you want to accommodate. For example, if you want your site to be easily accessible for the blind, you can use a text-to-speech program just as they would.
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